GRAPHENE JARGON BUSTER

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HERE WE TRY AND DEMYSTIFY SOME OF THE TERMS YOU WILL SEE RELATING TO GRAPHENE

“Allotrope” one or more forms of an elementary substance; for example diamond and graphite are allotropes of carbon
“Anisotropic” having physical properties that are different in measurement along different axes or directions (as opposed to isotropic, which means having uniform physical properties in all directions)
“Barrier films” typically a film with controlled permeability to gases, water, molecules or volatile compounds
"Bottom-up manufacturing” Bottom Up manufacturing of graphene is a commonly used term describing the CVD preparation of synthetic graphene structures
“CNT” carbon nanotubes are commonly available in two types. Single walled and multi walled. They are tube shaped cylinders of carbon atoms with a diameter which measures on the nanometer scale. For comparison a nanometer is one ten-thousandth of the thickness of a human hair
“Composite materials” are materials comprising of discretely different materials, often made from a combination of fibers and resin which have significantly different properties. By adding graphene to existing resins used in  composites you can improve existing qualities and reduce weight. 

“Covalently” a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

“CVD” chemical vapor deposition, a process whereby a volatile species are deposited or condensed onto a surface or substrate

“Disperse” to separate and move apart 

“Exfoliation” the separation of layers of material; typically by chemical, thermal or mechanical mechanisms when preparing graphene from graphite
“FLGs” few layered graphene, typically up to 10 layers
“Functionalization” of nanomaterials provides a means by which the surface chemistry of the materials may be modified, which enables them to interact with other materials. The process Haydale uses to functionalize nanomaterials is patented and configurable, depending on the end result required. It is dry and environmentally friendly, making Haydale stand out from the competition. 
“GNPs” or “Graphene Nanoplatelets” made of between 11 and 100 layers of graphene. Unlike singled layered graphene which is manufactured in a laboratory, graphene nanoplatelets can be prepared from mined graphite  from multiple sources including Sri Lanka, Sweden and Canada.
“Graphene” graphene is a monolayer (a 2D material) of carbon atoms, arranged in a hexagonal pattern (a honeycomb crystal lattice). The term graphene and FLG is generally accepted to apply to materials up to ten layers thick.
“Graphite” an allotrope of carbon with an order structure of atoms in a regular hexagonal 2D array (graphene) weakly bonded with adjacent layers to produce an anisotropic material; can be either naturally occurring or artificially generated by the heat treatment of appropriate carbon precursors
“HDPlas™” Haydale’s patented plasma process for treating carbon materials

“High Aspect Ratio Nanomaterial” or “HARN” a material where one or two of the three dimensions of a particle are much smaller than the other dimension(s) and where any of these dimensions are in the nanometer range (10-9m); fibers are an example of a high aspect ratio material

“ISO 9001” The standard, developed and published by the International Organization for Standardization, that define, establish, and maintain an effective quality assurance system for manufacturing and service industries. ISO 9001 deals with the requirements that organizations wishing to meet the standard must fulfil.

“Multi-walled nanotubes" concentric cylinders with an internal diameter the order of a nanometer (10-9m)

“Nanomaterial” a material or particle where one of the three dimensions is in the nanometer range (10-9m), but typically less than 100 nanometers

“Nanometer” unit of length, equal to one billionth of a meter (10-9m)

“Nanoparticles” particles between 1 and 100 nanometers in size

“Nanotube” a cylindrical structure, with a typical diameter the order of a nanometer (10-9m)

“Particle” a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit with respect to its transport and properties

“Plasma” plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter – the others being solids, liquids and gas

“Polymer” a large molecule composed of repeated subunits (monomers)

“Polymeric” a material which is a polymer

“Precursor” a compound that participates in a chemical reaction and produces another compound

“Substrate” a surface of a material on which a process is conducted and/or a support for deposited materials

“Van der Waals” Relatively weak forces between molecules resultant from a dipole moment

"2D Materials"  2 dimensional materials are materials which consist of just a single layer of atoms. Graphene is one of many single layered materials, many of which have promising applications on their own

 

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